Victor Emmanuel II

Vittorio Emanuele II (1820–1878)
   Born in Turin on 19 March 1820, this last king of Sardinia and first king of a united Italy grew up in Tuscany and Piedmont. He was the son of Charles Albert and Maria Teresa of Tuscany. As a young man, he married Maria Adelaide, daughter of the Austrian viceroy in Lombardy-Venetia. Despite his lack of command experience, he led a division in the War of Independence of 1848–1849. Defeat at Novara led his father to abdicate and brought young Victor Emmanuel to the throne. In that position, he negotiated an armistice with General Radetzky. He revealed his absolutist inclinations by twice dissolving Parliament when its majority objected to the resultant treaty. The king twice called for new elections until the majority that he preferred was realized. Parliament approved the treaty with Austria in 1850. The king further circumvented the parliament by making a secret arrangement with France for the dispatch of Piedmontese troops to the Crimea in 1854, just as he was later to make a secret alliance with France in the event of war with Prussia. After Giuseppe Garibaldi had ceded southern Italy to Piedmont (18 March 1861), his influence with the new king of Italy grew, to the intense chagrin of Camillo Benso di Cavour. In fact, Victor Emmanuel retained secret contacts with both Giuseppe Mazzini and Garibaldi throughout his reign. When Rome was absorbed, the Piedmontese king of united Italy began to be called “Father of his Country.” His dynastic policy often put him at odds with his government, his claims to uphold the Statuto Albertino notwithstanding. His maneuvering brought down the governments of both Bettino Ricasoli and Marco Minghetti. One of his sons, Amadeo, was king of Spain from 1870 to 1873.
   His wife, having produced eight children (three of whom died in childhood), passed away in 1855. He remarried morganatically. His new wife was Rosa Vercellana Guerrieri, whom he gave the title of Countess of Mirafiore e Fontanafredda. Victor Emmanuel laid the groundwork for the Triple Alliance by visiting both Berlin and Vienna in 1873. He died in Rome in 1878, aged 58, and was succeeded by his son, Humbert I (Umberto I).

Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. . 2007.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Victor-Emmanuel II — de Savoie Dynastie depuis 1820 Maison de Savoie Casa di Savoia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VICTOR-EMMANUEL II — (1820 1878) roi de Sardaigne (1849 1861) et d’Italie (1861 1878) Dernier roi de Piémont, premier souverain de l’État unitaire, Victor Emmanuel de Savoie a été placé par l’historiographie officielle de la monarchie au rang des «pères de la patrie» …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Victor Emmanuel — may refer to: *Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia *Victor Emmanuel II of Italy *Victor Emmanuel III of Italy *Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples *Vittorio Emanuele Orlando;See also *Víctor Manuel is a Spanish singer …   Wikipedia

  • Victor Emmanuel I. — Victor Emmanuel I., König von Sardinien, geb. 1759, regierte 1802 bis 1821, wo er zu Gunsten seines Bruders Karl Felix resignirte, st. 1824; s. Sardinien …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Victor Emmanuel II. — Victor Emmanuel II., geb. 14. März 1820, vermählt 1842 mit der (1855 gestorbenen) Erzherzogin Adelheid, einer Tochter des Erzherzogs Rainer, aus welcher Ehe 5 Kinder leben, König seit 23. März 1849; s. Sardinien …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Victor Emmanuel II — 1820 78; king of Sardinia (1849 61) & 1st king of Italy (1861 78) …   English World dictionary

  • Victor-Emmanuel — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Prénom composé des rois : Victor Emmanuel Ier, roi de Sardaigne de 1802 à 1821 ; Victor Emmanuel II, roi de Savoie de 1849 à 1861, puis d Italie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Victor Emmanuel II — 1820 78, king of Sardinia 1849 78; first king of Italy 1861 78. * * * Italian Vittorio Emanuele born March 14, 1820, Turin, Piedmont, Kingdom of Sardinia died Jan. 9, 1878, Rome, Italy King of Sardinia (1849–61) and first king of a united Italy… …   Universalium

  • Victor Emmanuel II — (1820–1878)    The King of Piedmont Sardinia (1849–1861) and Italy (1861–1878), Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy assumed the throne of Piedmont after the Austrians defeated his father Charles Albert at the Battle of Novara in March 1849 and forced him …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Victor Emmanuel — Vic′tor Emman′uel [[t]ˈvɪk tər[/t]] n. 1) big Victor Emmanuel II, 1820–78, king of Sardinia 1849–78; first king of Italy 1861–78 2) big Victor Emmanuel III, 1869–1947, king of Italy 1900–46 …   From formal English to slang

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